[17] Old Catalan shared many features with Gallo-Romance, diverging from Old Occitan between the 11th and 14th centuries. Estatutos de la Academia Aragonesa del Catalán. [93] The only exception is the isolated idiosyncratic Alguerese dialect. In the Balearic Islands, IEC's standard is used but adapted for the Balearic dialect by the University of the Balearic Islands's philological section.

Occitan’s fight to stay away from the cliff of extinction. For example, Catalan fang "mud" and rostir "to roast", of Germanic origin, contrast with Spanish lodo and asar, of Latin origin; whereas Catalan filosa "spinning wheel" and templa "temple", of Latin origin, contrast with Spanish rueca and sien, of Germanic origin. In 2011,[102] the Aragonese government passed a decree approving the statutes of a new language regulator of Catalan in La Franja (the so-called Catalan-speaking areas of Aragon) as originally provided for by Law 10/2009. Mefia’t! In 1932, Valencian writers and intellectuals gathered in Castelló de la Plana to make a formal adoption of the so-called Normes de Castelló, a set of guidelines following Pompeu Fabra's Catalan language norms. Andorra: Sociolinguistic data from Andorran Government, 1999. The consonant system of Catalan is rather conservative. This process started very early, and one can find such examples in Ramon Llull's work. Results", "Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Twenty-first edition", "Sociolinguistic situation in Catalan-speaking areas. Currently, everyone who writes in Valencian uses this standard, except the Royal Academy of Valencian Culture (Acadèmia de Cultura Valenciana, RACV), which uses for Valencian an independent standard. [7] Since the promulgation of the 1993 constitution, several policies favoring Catalan have been enforced, like Catalan medium education.[7]. By 1911, the number of Catalan speakers was around 100,000. The government of France formally recognizes only French as an official language. [110], The grammar of Catalan is similar to other Romance languages. Catalan has inherited the typical vowel system of Vulgar Latin, with seven stressed phonemes: /a ɛ e i ɔ o u/, a common feature in Western Romance, with the exception of Spanish. The word Catalan is derived from the territorial name of Catalonia, itself of disputed etymology. [63][95] The various forms of Catalan and Valencian are mutually intelligible (ranging from 90% to 95%)[93], Linguists, including Valencian scholars, deal with Catalan and Valencian as the same language.

More about our links policy here.

[18] The first book produced with movable type in the Iberian Peninsula was printed in Catalan. In Majorcan, unstressed vowels reduce to four: /a e ɛ/ follow the Eastern Catalan reduction pattern; however /o ɔ/ reduce to [o], with /u/ remaining distinct, as in Western Catalan. [69] There are a few instances of unreduced [e], [o] in some words. Excepting some regions in the west and south which have been Aragonese/Spanish-speaking since at least the 18th century. Western Catalan: In nouns and adjectives, maintenance of /n/ of medieval plurals in proparoxytone words.E.g. [103] The new entity, designated as Acadèmia Aragonesa del Català, shall allow a facultative education in Catalan and a standardization of the Catalan language in La Franja. [109] Standardization of Catalan was among the topics discussed during the First International Congress of the Catalan Language, held in Barcelona October 1906. [42], During much of its history, and especially during the Francoist dictatorship (1939–1975), the Catalan language was ridiculed as a mere dialect of Spanish. Occitan and Catalan have always been different literary languages with different spellings. ), a feature shared with Italian. In the Northern Catalonia area of France, Catalan has followed the same trend as the other minority languages of France, with most of its native speakers being 60 or older (as of 2004). After the declaration of independence of Algeria in 1962, almost all the Catalan speakers fled to Northern Catalonia (as Pieds-Noirs) or Alacant.[23]. For the ship, see, [T]he historical patrimonial language of the, Classification and relationship with other Romance languages, Relationship with other Romance languages. Central Catalan is considered the standard pronunciation of the language and has the highest number of speakers. Thus, one can find bullent/bullenta ("boiling") in contrast with traditional bullent/bullent. or can you say “loch” in a very strong Scottish accent?). Western Catalan: In verbs, the inchoative endings are -isc/-esc, -ix, -ixen, -isca/-esca. [10], Martorell's outstanding[18] novel of chivalry Tirant lo Blanc (1490) shows a transition from Medieval to Renaissance values, something that can also be seen in Metge's work. Aragon: Sociolinguistic data from Euromosaic, Alguer: Sociolinguistic data from Euromosaic, This page was last edited on 27 October 2020, at 21:42. [26] The Second Spanish Republic (1931–1939) saw a brief period of tolerance, with most restrictions against Catalan being lifted.

And "search" instead of "seach". [27][9], Since the Spanish transition to democracy (1975–1982), Catalan has been institutionalized as an official language, language of education, and language of mass media; all of which have contributed to its increased prestige.

[18] Examples include the work of Majorcan polymath Ramon Llull (1232–1315), the Four Great Chronicles (13th–14th centuries), and the Valencian school of poetry culminating in Ausiàs March (1397–1459).

Their speech was known as patuet. And you know the funniest thing? [35], Standard Catalan, virtually accepted by all speakers,[28] is mostly based on Eastern Catalan,[63][101] which is the most widely used dialect. Portuguese: quero comer uma maçã amanhã . [68] Words with /e/ in Balearic almost always have /e/ in Central and Western Catalan as well. Selected text[122] from Manuel de Pedrolo's 1970 novel Un amor fora ciutat ("A love affair outside the city"). [35] Any lexical divergence within any of the two groups can be explained as an archaism. [35], The same happens with Arabic loanwords. As you know Catalan writers used Provençal in poetry but prose has been written in Catalan from the very start.

I asked my wife who is a native Catalan speaker and speaks, of course, Spanish (but had rarely heard Occitan and can't speak French) and she told me it was difficult for her to follow. First language, language of identification and habitual language. No: the signs are in Catalan! [63] It is spoken in the densely populated regions of the Barcelona province, the eastern half of the province of Tarragona, and most of the province of Girona. [21][10], With the union of the crowns of Castille and Aragon in 1479, the use of Spanish gradually became more prestigious[20] and marked the start of the decline of Catalan. [50] The web site of the Generalitat de Catalunya estimated that as of 2004 there were 9,118,882 speakers of Catalan. [62] There are only a few exceptions, like minso/minsa ("scarce"). Subsequently, the Philological Section of the Institut d'Estudis Catalans (IEC, founded in 1911) published the Normes ortogràfiques in 1913 under the direction of Antoni Maria Alcover and Pompeu Fabra. [97][98] This reduction pattern, inherited from Proto-Romance, is also found in Italian and Portuguese.

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[17] Old Catalan shared many features with Gallo-Romance, diverging from Old Occitan between the 11th and 14th centuries. Estatutos de la Academia Aragonesa del Catalán. [93] The only exception is the isolated idiosyncratic Alguerese dialect. In the Balearic Islands, IEC's standard is used but adapted for the Balearic dialect by the University of the Balearic Islands's philological section.

Occitan’s fight to stay away from the cliff of extinction. For example, Catalan fang "mud" and rostir "to roast", of Germanic origin, contrast with Spanish lodo and asar, of Latin origin; whereas Catalan filosa "spinning wheel" and templa "temple", of Latin origin, contrast with Spanish rueca and sien, of Germanic origin. In 2011,[102] the Aragonese government passed a decree approving the statutes of a new language regulator of Catalan in La Franja (the so-called Catalan-speaking areas of Aragon) as originally provided for by Law 10/2009. Mefia’t! In 1932, Valencian writers and intellectuals gathered in Castelló de la Plana to make a formal adoption of the so-called Normes de Castelló, a set of guidelines following Pompeu Fabra's Catalan language norms. Andorra: Sociolinguistic data from Andorran Government, 1999. The consonant system of Catalan is rather conservative. This process started very early, and one can find such examples in Ramon Llull's work. Results", "Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Twenty-first edition", "Sociolinguistic situation in Catalan-speaking areas. Currently, everyone who writes in Valencian uses this standard, except the Royal Academy of Valencian Culture (Acadèmia de Cultura Valenciana, RACV), which uses for Valencian an independent standard. [7] Since the promulgation of the 1993 constitution, several policies favoring Catalan have been enforced, like Catalan medium education.[7]. By 1911, the number of Catalan speakers was around 100,000. The government of France formally recognizes only French as an official language. [110], The grammar of Catalan is similar to other Romance languages. Catalan has inherited the typical vowel system of Vulgar Latin, with seven stressed phonemes: /a ɛ e i ɔ o u/, a common feature in Western Romance, with the exception of Spanish. The word Catalan is derived from the territorial name of Catalonia, itself of disputed etymology. [63][95] The various forms of Catalan and Valencian are mutually intelligible (ranging from 90% to 95%)[93], Linguists, including Valencian scholars, deal with Catalan and Valencian as the same language.

More about our links policy here.

[18] The first book produced with movable type in the Iberian Peninsula was printed in Catalan. In Majorcan, unstressed vowels reduce to four: /a e ɛ/ follow the Eastern Catalan reduction pattern; however /o ɔ/ reduce to [o], with /u/ remaining distinct, as in Western Catalan. [69] There are a few instances of unreduced [e], [o] in some words. Excepting some regions in the west and south which have been Aragonese/Spanish-speaking since at least the 18th century. Western Catalan: In nouns and adjectives, maintenance of /n/ of medieval plurals in proparoxytone words.E.g. [103] The new entity, designated as Acadèmia Aragonesa del Català, shall allow a facultative education in Catalan and a standardization of the Catalan language in La Franja. [109] Standardization of Catalan was among the topics discussed during the First International Congress of the Catalan Language, held in Barcelona October 1906. [42], During much of its history, and especially during the Francoist dictatorship (1939–1975), the Catalan language was ridiculed as a mere dialect of Spanish. Occitan and Catalan have always been different literary languages with different spellings. ), a feature shared with Italian. In the Northern Catalonia area of France, Catalan has followed the same trend as the other minority languages of France, with most of its native speakers being 60 or older (as of 2004). After the declaration of independence of Algeria in 1962, almost all the Catalan speakers fled to Northern Catalonia (as Pieds-Noirs) or Alacant.[23]. For the ship, see, [T]he historical patrimonial language of the, Classification and relationship with other Romance languages, Relationship with other Romance languages. Central Catalan is considered the standard pronunciation of the language and has the highest number of speakers. Thus, one can find bullent/bullenta ("boiling") in contrast with traditional bullent/bullent. or can you say “loch” in a very strong Scottish accent?). Western Catalan: In verbs, the inchoative endings are -isc/-esc, -ix, -ixen, -isca/-esca. [10], Martorell's outstanding[18] novel of chivalry Tirant lo Blanc (1490) shows a transition from Medieval to Renaissance values, something that can also be seen in Metge's work. Aragon: Sociolinguistic data from Euromosaic, Alguer: Sociolinguistic data from Euromosaic, This page was last edited on 27 October 2020, at 21:42. [26] The Second Spanish Republic (1931–1939) saw a brief period of tolerance, with most restrictions against Catalan being lifted.

And "search" instead of "seach". [27][9], Since the Spanish transition to democracy (1975–1982), Catalan has been institutionalized as an official language, language of education, and language of mass media; all of which have contributed to its increased prestige.

[18] Examples include the work of Majorcan polymath Ramon Llull (1232–1315), the Four Great Chronicles (13th–14th centuries), and the Valencian school of poetry culminating in Ausiàs March (1397–1459).

Their speech was known as patuet. And you know the funniest thing? [35], Standard Catalan, virtually accepted by all speakers,[28] is mostly based on Eastern Catalan,[63][101] which is the most widely used dialect. Portuguese: quero comer uma maçã amanhã . [68] Words with /e/ in Balearic almost always have /e/ in Central and Western Catalan as well. Selected text[122] from Manuel de Pedrolo's 1970 novel Un amor fora ciutat ("A love affair outside the city"). [35] Any lexical divergence within any of the two groups can be explained as an archaism. [35], The same happens with Arabic loanwords. As you know Catalan writers used Provençal in poetry but prose has been written in Catalan from the very start.

I asked my wife who is a native Catalan speaker and speaks, of course, Spanish (but had rarely heard Occitan and can't speak French) and she told me it was difficult for her to follow. First language, language of identification and habitual language. No: the signs are in Catalan! [63] It is spoken in the densely populated regions of the Barcelona province, the eastern half of the province of Tarragona, and most of the province of Girona. [21][10], With the union of the crowns of Castille and Aragon in 1479, the use of Spanish gradually became more prestigious[20] and marked the start of the decline of Catalan. [50] The web site of the Generalitat de Catalunya estimated that as of 2004 there were 9,118,882 speakers of Catalan. [62] There are only a few exceptions, like minso/minsa ("scarce"). Subsequently, the Philological Section of the Institut d'Estudis Catalans (IEC, founded in 1911) published the Normes ortogràfiques in 1913 under the direction of Antoni Maria Alcover and Pompeu Fabra. [97][98] This reduction pattern, inherited from Proto-Romance, is also found in Italian and Portuguese.

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occitan vs catalan

Catalan and Spanish but also Portuguese, Italian, French and Romanian are all cousin languages. Diphthongisation has evolved in different ways: Occitan paire vs. Catalan pare 'father;' Occitan carrièra (carrèra, carrèira) vs. Catalan carrera. Catalan shares many traits with the other neighboring Romance languages (Occitan, French, Italian, Sardinian as well as Spanish and Portuguese among others). The sentence "The train has arrived" could be translated as Ha arribat el tren or El tren ha arribat. [28] In Catalonia, there is an unparalleled large bilingual European non-state linguistic community. Thus, as it should be expected from closely related languages, Catalan today shares many traits with other Romance languages. Brazilian Portuguese tends to be a bit clearer (although the speech of the "nordestinos" in Brazil's Northeast is known as being difficult to understand), but there is a lot of the "tch" sound. The private guides at ForeverBarcelona often get asked about it, and we love talking about it.

[17] Old Catalan shared many features with Gallo-Romance, diverging from Old Occitan between the 11th and 14th centuries. Estatutos de la Academia Aragonesa del Catalán. [93] The only exception is the isolated idiosyncratic Alguerese dialect. In the Balearic Islands, IEC's standard is used but adapted for the Balearic dialect by the University of the Balearic Islands's philological section.

Occitan’s fight to stay away from the cliff of extinction. For example, Catalan fang "mud" and rostir "to roast", of Germanic origin, contrast with Spanish lodo and asar, of Latin origin; whereas Catalan filosa "spinning wheel" and templa "temple", of Latin origin, contrast with Spanish rueca and sien, of Germanic origin. In 2011,[102] the Aragonese government passed a decree approving the statutes of a new language regulator of Catalan in La Franja (the so-called Catalan-speaking areas of Aragon) as originally provided for by Law 10/2009. Mefia’t! In 1932, Valencian writers and intellectuals gathered in Castelló de la Plana to make a formal adoption of the so-called Normes de Castelló, a set of guidelines following Pompeu Fabra's Catalan language norms. Andorra: Sociolinguistic data from Andorran Government, 1999. The consonant system of Catalan is rather conservative. This process started very early, and one can find such examples in Ramon Llull's work. Results", "Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Twenty-first edition", "Sociolinguistic situation in Catalan-speaking areas. Currently, everyone who writes in Valencian uses this standard, except the Royal Academy of Valencian Culture (Acadèmia de Cultura Valenciana, RACV), which uses for Valencian an independent standard. [7] Since the promulgation of the 1993 constitution, several policies favoring Catalan have been enforced, like Catalan medium education.[7]. By 1911, the number of Catalan speakers was around 100,000. The government of France formally recognizes only French as an official language. [110], The grammar of Catalan is similar to other Romance languages. Catalan has inherited the typical vowel system of Vulgar Latin, with seven stressed phonemes: /a ɛ e i ɔ o u/, a common feature in Western Romance, with the exception of Spanish. The word Catalan is derived from the territorial name of Catalonia, itself of disputed etymology. [63][95] The various forms of Catalan and Valencian are mutually intelligible (ranging from 90% to 95%)[93], Linguists, including Valencian scholars, deal with Catalan and Valencian as the same language.

More about our links policy here.

[18] The first book produced with movable type in the Iberian Peninsula was printed in Catalan. In Majorcan, unstressed vowels reduce to four: /a e ɛ/ follow the Eastern Catalan reduction pattern; however /o ɔ/ reduce to [o], with /u/ remaining distinct, as in Western Catalan. [69] There are a few instances of unreduced [e], [o] in some words. Excepting some regions in the west and south which have been Aragonese/Spanish-speaking since at least the 18th century. Western Catalan: In nouns and adjectives, maintenance of /n/ of medieval plurals in proparoxytone words.E.g. [103] The new entity, designated as Acadèmia Aragonesa del Català, shall allow a facultative education in Catalan and a standardization of the Catalan language in La Franja. [109] Standardization of Catalan was among the topics discussed during the First International Congress of the Catalan Language, held in Barcelona October 1906. [42], During much of its history, and especially during the Francoist dictatorship (1939–1975), the Catalan language was ridiculed as a mere dialect of Spanish. Occitan and Catalan have always been different literary languages with different spellings. ), a feature shared with Italian. In the Northern Catalonia area of France, Catalan has followed the same trend as the other minority languages of France, with most of its native speakers being 60 or older (as of 2004). After the declaration of independence of Algeria in 1962, almost all the Catalan speakers fled to Northern Catalonia (as Pieds-Noirs) or Alacant.[23]. For the ship, see, [T]he historical patrimonial language of the, Classification and relationship with other Romance languages, Relationship with other Romance languages. Central Catalan is considered the standard pronunciation of the language and has the highest number of speakers. Thus, one can find bullent/bullenta ("boiling") in contrast with traditional bullent/bullent. or can you say “loch” in a very strong Scottish accent?). Western Catalan: In verbs, the inchoative endings are -isc/-esc, -ix, -ixen, -isca/-esca. [10], Martorell's outstanding[18] novel of chivalry Tirant lo Blanc (1490) shows a transition from Medieval to Renaissance values, something that can also be seen in Metge's work. Aragon: Sociolinguistic data from Euromosaic, Alguer: Sociolinguistic data from Euromosaic, This page was last edited on 27 October 2020, at 21:42. [26] The Second Spanish Republic (1931–1939) saw a brief period of tolerance, with most restrictions against Catalan being lifted.

And "search" instead of "seach". [27][9], Since the Spanish transition to democracy (1975–1982), Catalan has been institutionalized as an official language, language of education, and language of mass media; all of which have contributed to its increased prestige.

[18] Examples include the work of Majorcan polymath Ramon Llull (1232–1315), the Four Great Chronicles (13th–14th centuries), and the Valencian school of poetry culminating in Ausiàs March (1397–1459).

Their speech was known as patuet. And you know the funniest thing? [35], Standard Catalan, virtually accepted by all speakers,[28] is mostly based on Eastern Catalan,[63][101] which is the most widely used dialect. Portuguese: quero comer uma maçã amanhã . [68] Words with /e/ in Balearic almost always have /e/ in Central and Western Catalan as well. Selected text[122] from Manuel de Pedrolo's 1970 novel Un amor fora ciutat ("A love affair outside the city"). [35] Any lexical divergence within any of the two groups can be explained as an archaism. [35], The same happens with Arabic loanwords. As you know Catalan writers used Provençal in poetry but prose has been written in Catalan from the very start.

I asked my wife who is a native Catalan speaker and speaks, of course, Spanish (but had rarely heard Occitan and can't speak French) and she told me it was difficult for her to follow. First language, language of identification and habitual language. No: the signs are in Catalan! [63] It is spoken in the densely populated regions of the Barcelona province, the eastern half of the province of Tarragona, and most of the province of Girona. [21][10], With the union of the crowns of Castille and Aragon in 1479, the use of Spanish gradually became more prestigious[20] and marked the start of the decline of Catalan. [50] The web site of the Generalitat de Catalunya estimated that as of 2004 there were 9,118,882 speakers of Catalan. [62] There are only a few exceptions, like minso/minsa ("scarce"). Subsequently, the Philological Section of the Institut d'Estudis Catalans (IEC, founded in 1911) published the Normes ortogràfiques in 1913 under the direction of Antoni Maria Alcover and Pompeu Fabra. [97][98] This reduction pattern, inherited from Proto-Romance, is also found in Italian and Portuguese.

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