Write a detailed mechanism for the sulfonation of benzene, including all resonance forms. The nitronium ion is a very good electrophile and is open to attack by benzene. Sulfuric acid protonates nitric acid to form the nitronium ion (water molecule is lost). It is important to note that the chemical formula of the sulfonic group is -SO3H. Talk me through this mechanism .

5 Patents Expand this section. CID 7961 (Bromobenzene) CID 7236 (2-Bromotoluene) Dates: Modify: 2020-10-11.

The formation of the electrophile. The reaction is reversed by adding hot aqueous acid to benzenesulfonic acid to produce benzene. Free LibreFest conference on November 4-6! Nitration: Methods and Mechanisms.

The first step in the nitration of benzene is to activate HNO3with sulfuric acid to produce a stronger electrophile, the nitronium ion. Sulfuric acid protonates nitric acid to form the nitronium ion (water molecule is lost). Sulphur trioxide is an electrophile because it is a highly polar molecule with a fair amount of positive charge on the sulphur atom.

(Resonance forms of the intermediate can be seen in the generalized electrophilic aromatic substitution). What is the product of the following reaction: 9.

Therefore, by adding heat to benzenesulfonic acid in diluted aqueous sulfuric acid the reaction is reversed. -30℃; b.p.760 156℃), it is used as a solvent, particularly for large-scale crystallisations, and for the introduction of phenyl groups in organic synthesis. What is/are the required reagent(s)for the following reaction: 8. The sulphur trioxide electrophile arises in one of two ways depending on which sort of acid you are using.

Vollhardt, Peter. For other problems involving Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution and similar reactions see: 3. Benzenesulfonic acids are also used in the synthesis of detergents, dyes, and sulfa drugs. Having nitrogen present in a ring is very useful because it can be used as a directing group as well as a masked amino group.


The source of the nitronium ion is through the protonation of nitric acid by sulfuric acid, which causes the loss of a water molecule and formation of a nitronium ion.

Sauls, Thomas W., Walter H. Rueggeberg, and Samuel L. Norwood. Draw the intermediates, starting materials, and products. Without sulfuric acid the reaction would not occur.
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Write a detailed mechanism for the sulfonation of benzene, including all resonance forms. The nitronium ion is a very good electrophile and is open to attack by benzene. Sulfuric acid protonates nitric acid to form the nitronium ion (water molecule is lost). It is important to note that the chemical formula of the sulfonic group is -SO3H. Talk me through this mechanism .

5 Patents Expand this section. CID 7961 (Bromobenzene) CID 7236 (2-Bromotoluene) Dates: Modify: 2020-10-11.

The formation of the electrophile. The reaction is reversed by adding hot aqueous acid to benzenesulfonic acid to produce benzene. Free LibreFest conference on November 4-6! Nitration: Methods and Mechanisms.

The first step in the nitration of benzene is to activate HNO3with sulfuric acid to produce a stronger electrophile, the nitronium ion. Sulfuric acid protonates nitric acid to form the nitronium ion (water molecule is lost). Sulphur trioxide is an electrophile because it is a highly polar molecule with a fair amount of positive charge on the sulphur atom.

(Resonance forms of the intermediate can be seen in the generalized electrophilic aromatic substitution). What is the product of the following reaction: 9.

Therefore, by adding heat to benzenesulfonic acid in diluted aqueous sulfuric acid the reaction is reversed. -30℃; b.p.760 156℃), it is used as a solvent, particularly for large-scale crystallisations, and for the introduction of phenyl groups in organic synthesis. What is/are the required reagent(s)for the following reaction: 8. The sulphur trioxide electrophile arises in one of two ways depending on which sort of acid you are using.

Vollhardt, Peter. For other problems involving Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution and similar reactions see: 3. Benzenesulfonic acids are also used in the synthesis of detergents, dyes, and sulfa drugs. Having nitrogen present in a ring is very useful because it can be used as a directing group as well as a masked amino group.


The source of the nitronium ion is through the protonation of nitric acid by sulfuric acid, which causes the loss of a water molecule and formation of a nitronium ion.

Sauls, Thomas W., Walter H. Rueggeberg, and Samuel L. Norwood. Draw the intermediates, starting materials, and products. Without sulfuric acid the reaction would not occur.
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sulfonation of bromobenzene


All three steps are shown together in the mechanism below. There are two equivalent ways of sulphonating benzene: Heat benzene under reflux with concentrated sulphuric acid for several hours. Warm benzene under reflux at 40°C with fuming sulphuric acid for 20 to 30 minutes. We also acknowledge previous National Science Foundation support under grant numbers 1246120, 1525057, and 1413739. .

The sulfur in sulfur trioxide is electrophilic because the oxygens pull electrons away from it because oxygen is very electronegative.

Sulfonation of benzene is a reversible reaction.

9.

), Virtual Textbook of Organic Chemistry.

3 Chemical and Physical Properties Expand this section. 2 Names and Identifiers Expand this section.

. Further Applications of Nitration and Sulfonation Sulfuric acid is needed in order for a good electrophile to form. Draw an energy diagram for the nitration of benzene. Isotopically labeled reagents can be useful in determining reaction mechanisms since the C-D bond is stronger than the C-H bond. To produce benzenesulfonic acid from benzene, fuming sulfuric acid and sulfur trioxide are added. “On the Mechanism of Sulfonation of the Aromatic Nucleus and Sulfone Formation.” The Journal of Organic Chemistry 66 (1955): 455-465. Nitration is used to add nitrogen to a benzene ring, which can be used further in substitution reactions. Sulfonation of benzene is a process of heating benzene with fuming sulphuric acid (H2SO4 +SO3) to produce benzenesulfonic acid. The nitronium ion is a very good electrophile and is open to attack by benzene.

The products of aromatic nitrations are very important intermediates in industrial chemistry.

The reversibility of the sulfonation reaction creates an opportunity to prepare deuterated benzene.

Boston: W. H. Freeman & Company, 2007. 1 Structures Expand this section.

Label the transition states. Because the nitronium ion is a good electrophile, it is attacked by benzene to produce Nitrobenzene.

The LibreTexts libraries are Powered by MindTouch® and are supported by the Department of Education Open Textbook Pilot Project, the UC Davis Office of the Provost, the UC Davis Library, the California State University Affordable Learning Solutions Program, and Merlot.
Therefore, by adding heat to benzenesulfonic acid in diluted aqueous sulfuric acid the reaction is reversed.

Sulfur trioxide readily reacts with water to produce sulfuric acid and heat.

The reaction is reversible in nature.

The benzene attacks the sulfur (and subsequent proton transfers occur) to produce benzenesulfonic acid.

The reaction is reversed by adding hot aqueous acid to benzenesulfonic acid to produce benzene. Sulfonation of benzene (For questions 1 and 2 see Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution for hints). 7.

American Chemical Society. Register now! The sulfonic group blocks the carbon from being attacked by other substituents and after the reaction is completed it can be removed by reverse sulfonation. 10.

Sulfur trioxide readily reacts with water to produce sulfuric acid and heat. The sulfur in sulfur trioxide is electrophilic because the oxygens pull electrons away from it because oxygen is very electronegative.

New York: VCH Publishers, Inc., 1989. The second stage of the reaction involves a transfer of the hydrogen from the ring to the negative oxygen. It is this which is attracted to the ring electrons. What is/are the required reagent(s)for the following reaction: 2. 17.4: Sulfonation of Benzene (an EAS Reaction), [ "article:topic", "showtoc:no", "transcluded:yes", "source-chem-45572" ], 17.3: Nitration of Benzene (an EAS Reaction), 17.5: Alkylation and Acylation of Benzene - The Friedel-Crafts EAS Reactions. Modifying the Influence of Strong Activating Groups, Further Applications of Nitration and Sulfonation, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aromatic_sulfonation, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=s1qJ1...eature=related, http://www.chemtube3d.com/Electrophi...20benzene.html, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i7ucl...eature=related, Activating and Deactivating Benzene Rings, Electrophilic Attack on Disubstituted Benzenes.

Write a detailed mechanism for the sulfonation of benzene, including all resonance forms. The nitronium ion is a very good electrophile and is open to attack by benzene. Sulfuric acid protonates nitric acid to form the nitronium ion (water molecule is lost). It is important to note that the chemical formula of the sulfonic group is -SO3H. Talk me through this mechanism .

5 Patents Expand this section. CID 7961 (Bromobenzene) CID 7236 (2-Bromotoluene) Dates: Modify: 2020-10-11.

The formation of the electrophile. The reaction is reversed by adding hot aqueous acid to benzenesulfonic acid to produce benzene. Free LibreFest conference on November 4-6! Nitration: Methods and Mechanisms.

The first step in the nitration of benzene is to activate HNO3with sulfuric acid to produce a stronger electrophile, the nitronium ion. Sulfuric acid protonates nitric acid to form the nitronium ion (water molecule is lost). Sulphur trioxide is an electrophile because it is a highly polar molecule with a fair amount of positive charge on the sulphur atom.

(Resonance forms of the intermediate can be seen in the generalized electrophilic aromatic substitution). What is the product of the following reaction: 9.

Therefore, by adding heat to benzenesulfonic acid in diluted aqueous sulfuric acid the reaction is reversed. -30℃; b.p.760 156℃), it is used as a solvent, particularly for large-scale crystallisations, and for the introduction of phenyl groups in organic synthesis. What is/are the required reagent(s)for the following reaction: 8. The sulphur trioxide electrophile arises in one of two ways depending on which sort of acid you are using.

Vollhardt, Peter. For other problems involving Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution and similar reactions see: 3. Benzenesulfonic acids are also used in the synthesis of detergents, dyes, and sulfa drugs. Having nitrogen present in a ring is very useful because it can be used as a directing group as well as a masked amino group.


The source of the nitronium ion is through the protonation of nitric acid by sulfuric acid, which causes the loss of a water molecule and formation of a nitronium ion.

Sauls, Thomas W., Walter H. Rueggeberg, and Samuel L. Norwood. Draw the intermediates, starting materials, and products. Without sulfuric acid the reaction would not occur.

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